Oriente Medio y el regreso de la Historia

BERLÍN – Desde que Francis Fukuyama sostuvo, hace más de dos decenios, que el mundo había llegado al fin de la Historia, ésta ha hecho contener la respiración al mundo. El ascenso de China, las guerras de los Balcanes, los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001, las guerras en el Afganistán y el Iraq, la crisis financiera mundial de 2008, la “primavera árabe” y la guerra civil siria han refutado la opinión de Fukuyama del inevitable triunfo de la democracia liberal. En realidad, se podría decir que la Historia ha dado la vuelta completa al círculo en el lapso de un cuarto de siglo, desde la caída del comunismo en Europa en 1989 hasta la renovada confrontación entre Rusia y Occidente.

Pero en Oriente Medio es donde la Historia está en marcha diariamente y con las consecuencias más dramáticas. El antiguo Oriente Medio, constituido sobre las ruinas del Imperio Otomano después de la primera guerra mundial, está desmoronándose claramente y en no poca medida por las acciones de los Estados Unidos en esa región propensa a los conflictos.

El pecado original de los Estados Unidos fue su invasión militar del Iraq en 2003 durante la presidencia de George W. Bush. Los “neoconservadores” en el poder en aquel momento olvidaron la necesidad de llenar el vacío de poder tanto en el Iraq como en la región, tras la destitución de Sadam Husein. La apresurada y prematura retirada militar por parte del Presidente Barack Obama constituyó un segundo fracaso de los EE.UU.

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