O Médio Oriente e o Regresso da História

BERLIM – Desde que Francis Fukuyama defendeu, há mais de duas décadas, que o mundo teria atingido o fim da história, a história fez com que o mundo suspendesse a respiração. A ascensão da China, as guerras Balcânicas, os ataques terroristas de 11 de Setembro de 2001, as guerras no Afeganistão e no Iraque, a crise financeira global de 2008, a “Primavera Árabe”, e a guerra civil Síria contradizem a visão de Fukuyama sobre o triunfo inevitável da democracia liberal. Na verdade, pode dizer-se que a história fechou um círculo no espaço de um quarto de século, desde a queda do comunismo na Europa em 1989 à renovada confrontação entre a Rússia e o Ocidente.

Mas é no Médio Oriente que se vê o impacto diário da história, e com as consequências mais dramáticas. O antigo Médio Oriente, formado a partir dos restos do Império Otomano depois da I Guerra Mundial, está claramente a desagregar-se, devido, em grande parte, às acções da América nesta região propensa ao conflito.

O pecado original dos Estados Unidos foi a sua invasão militar do Iraque em 2003, comandada pelo Presidente George W. Bush. Os “neoconservadores” no poder na altura não estavam conscientes da necessidade de preencher o vácuo de poder, tanto no Iraque como na região, a seguir à deposição de Saddam Hussein. A retirada precipitada e prematura do Presidente Barack Obama constituiu um segundo falhanço dos EUA.

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