Jorge G. Castañeda, Brazilian protesters go to streets in Latin-America, to prevent the World Cup, due to slow economic growth in Brazil Joseph Hurtado/Flickr

Las insatisfacciones del Mundial

CIUDAD DE MÉXICO – En América Latina es sabido que la combinación de crecimiento económico, democracia representativa y expansión de la clase media ha conducido a la región a una trampa, en la que las expectativas de los ciudadanos aumentan más rápidamente que la capacidad de los gobiernos para satisfacerlas. Las frustradas clases medias, junto con los sectores tradicionales, organizan manifestaciones y disturbios y se deshacen en las urnas de los gobiernos que no les responden. Sin embargo, pocos esperaban que esta ola de frustración amenazara al presidente más competente de América Latina, el colombiano Juan Manuel Santos, o a una de sus tradiciones más veneradas, el futbol brasileño.

Santos ha gobernado en Colombia con audacia y efectividad durante cuatro años. No solo ratificó un acuerdo de libre comercio con los Estados Unidos y abordó las violaciones a los derechos humanos de gobiernos anteriores; también se mostró firme en cuanto a reformas importantes a pesar de las protestas masivas que realizaron el año pasado estudiantes, maestros, campesinos y empresarios. Si bien la economía no ha crecido con la rapidez suficiente para satisfacer las necesidades del país, ha tenido un mejor desempeño que otras de la región.

Más importante aún, Santos apostó su capital político en las negociaciones de paz y desarme con las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) – el poderoso grupo guerrillero (descrito frecuentemente como un movimiento “narco-guerrillero”) que ha asolado al país durante cuatro décadas. Aunque se habían logrado algunos avances desde que las conversaciones de paz comenzaron en Cuba hace tres años, las negociaciones procedían lentamente, lo que dio a opositores como Álvaro Uribe, el predecesor de Santos, tiempo suficiente para movilizar a la opinión pública en contra de las negociaciones.

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