Paul Lachine

El empleo, factor de justicia

SANTIAGO – “¿Sientes como chorrea la riqueza?” preguntan con ironía los manifestantes que ocupan Wall Street y partes de los distritos financieros de Londres a San Francisco. No son los únicos que están preocupados. La desigualdad de ingresos es un tema candente, tanto en los campamentos de protesta desperdigados por los Estados Unidos como también entre los manifestantes que han salido a las calles de Taipei, Tel Aviv, El Cairo, Atenas, Madrid, Santiago y otros lugares.

En casi todos los países, incluso en China, la desigualdad ha llegado a un punto tal que es imperioso reducirla. En esto coinciden los manifestantes, los expertos y los políticos de centroizquierda (es casi lo único en lo que están de acuerdo). Pero el debate sobre las causas de la desigualdad es complejo, a menudo caótico; y en cuanto al modo de resolver el problema, puede ser más complejo aún.

En los países ricos del norte globalizado, la brecha creciente entre los ricos y los pobres tiene sus orígenes en el cambio tecnológico, en la globalización y las fechorías de la banca de inversión. En los países no tan ricos del sur, la desigualdad es en gran medida consecuencia de un problema más tradicional: la falta de oportunidades de empleo para los pobres.

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