Dschihad oder Mord?

Es ist bemerkenswert, das einige der bedenklichsten Konzepte der muslimischen Religionsterminologie jetzt in die internationale Sprache des Tagesgeschehens Einzug gehalten haben. Fragen aus der islamischen Theologie werden ausgiebig von der weltweiten Öffentlichkeit diskutiert und beschäftigen Spezialisten und Laien, Muslime und Nichtmuslime. Der theologische Disput hat sich weit von den islamischen Religionsschulen entfernt.

Der Begriff Dschihad zum Beispiel, der gemeinhin als „Heiliger Krieg“ übersetzt wird, ist mittlerweile nahezu allgegenwärtig. Obwohl der Dschihad in der frühen muslimischen Geschichte als Mittel zur Verbreitung von Gottes Wort gedacht war, unterscheiden muslimische Gelehrte heute zwei Arten von Dschihad: Der eine ist ein innerer Kampf gegen die Versuchung und der andere ein physischer Konflikt mit einem Aggressor, der das Überleben oder die Grundrechte einer muslimischen Gemeinschaft bedroht. In diesem Zusammenhang wird der Gebrauch des Begriffes durch die Fundamentalisten weithin abgelehnt.

Zahlreiche muslimische Gelehrte haben ihre Stimmen erhoben, um die Verteidigung der Selbstmordattentate oder Angriffe auf Zivilisten durch die Terroristen anzufechten, dazu liefern sie Zitate aus mehreren Jahrhunderten der religiösen Rechtsprechung. Allein dieser Ansatz stellt einen ehrbaren Ausdruck des kollektiven Gewissens gegen die Terroristen dar.

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