Cibo per tutti

LONDRA – Visto il raddoppiamento dei prezzi dei prodotti alimentari nell’ultimo decennio, la sicurezza alimentare è ricomparsa nell’agenda internazionale. Come si possono produrre quantitativi maggiori di cibo a livello mondiale per nutrire il prossimo miliardo di persone? Come si può aumentare la produzione agricola? Qual è il modo migliore per sviluppare l’acquacoltura?

Purtroppo, la focalizzazione sull’offerta non prende in considerazione un aspetto importante del problema. Il mondo produce già più del doppio delle calorie necessarie alla popolazione umana. Secondo le stime, un terzo della produzione alimentare globale viene sprecata. Nei paesi poveri, il cibo viene sprecato a causa di un processo di immagazzinamento non adeguato e delle lacune nella catena di approvvigionamento (ad esempio, la mancanza di refrigerazione). Ma anche nei paesi ricchi il cibo viene sprecato all’interno della catena di approvvigionamento, e inoltre gli stessi consumatori ne buttano via enormi quantità.

In molti casi è la povertà e non la mancanza di cibo sul mercato che porta alla fame e alle carenze nutrizionali. Milioni di persone non possono infatti permettersi di comprare il cibo necessario, cosa che non cambierebbe anche se venissero aumentate le riserve di cibo. Bilanciare la domanda per fare in modo di garantire del cibo nutriente ai poveri, soprattutto alle madri e ai bambini più vulnerabili, è uno degli imperativi più urgenti legati alla sicurezza alimentare.

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