De la nourriture pour tout le monde

LONDRES – Les prix des aliments ont doublé ces dix dernières années et la sécurité alimentaire est de nouveau au cœur des préoccupations internationales. Comment la planète peut-elle produire davantage pour nourrir un milliard de personnes en plus ? Comment peut-on augmenter les rendements agricoles ? Quelle est la meilleure méthode pour développer l'aquaculture ?

Malheureusement cette concentration sur la question de l'offre néglige l'autre versant du problème. La production mondiale est déjà plus de deux fois supérieure en nombre de calories à ce dont la population humaine a besoin. On estime qu'un tiers de la production alimentaire mondiale est gaspillée. Dans les pays pauvres, la nourriture se perd à cause d'un stockage inadapté et de lacunes dans la chaîne d'approvisionnement (par exemple, le manque de réfrigération). Dans les pays riches la nourriture est aussi gaspillée dans la chaîne d'approvisionnement et les consommateurs jettent beaucoup de nourriture.

En outre dans de nombreux cas, c'est bien la pauvreté, mais pas le manque de nourriture sur le marché qui entraîne la faim et les carences nutritionnelles. Des millions de personnes n'ont tout simplement pas les moyens d'acheter la nourriture dont ils ont besoin, ce qui pourrait toujours être le cas si on augmentait l'offre. Trouver une solution du côté de la demande, pour distribuer des aliments nutritifs aux pauvres, en particulier aux mères et aux enfants les plus vulnérables, est l'un des impératifs de sécurité alimentaire les plus urgents.

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