La démocratie, facteur clé du développement

LONDRES – "C'est l'économie, imbécile" est un mantra politique que l'on entend depuis plus de 20 ans. Aujourd'hui on répète cette phrase ad nauseam dans les discussions sur le développement. Mais assurer le développement d'un pays n'est pas facile.

Il y a des tonnes de littérature sur les différents facteurs qui permettent à un pays d'accéder à la prospérité. Dans leur ouvrage paru en 2012 qui a fait coulé beaucoup d'encre, Why Nations Fail, l'économiste Daron Acemoglu et le politologue James A. Robinson soulignent l'importance d'institutions politiques et économiques "inclusives". Dans son nouveau livre, The Great Escape, l'économiste Angus Deaton explique que la santé est un facteur clé de la prospérité d'un pays.

Publié très récemment par le Legatum Institute, le classement des pays en fonction de leur prospérité met en lumière une autre condition fondamentale de la prospérité : une bonne gouvernance et le respect de l'Etat de droit. Ainsi que le formule Nathan Gamester, directeur de la programmation du Legatum Institute, "La démocratie, c'est rentable". Ainsi, 27 des 30 pays les plus prospères de la planète sont des démocraties. Ce n'est pas vrai pour les 30 derniers.

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