缺席的美国

发自剑桥——美国国会草率地阻止了国际货币基金组织一项期待已久的改革。如果这只是一起孤立事件那也够糟糕的了,但这仅仅是自世纪之交以来一系列自毁行动的最新一起而已,对美国所企求的全球领导力造成了毫不必要的削弱。

国际货币基金组织的改革本是更新配额分配的重要一步,它决定了成员国货币的赞助额和投票权。这并没有要求美国赞助更多或是降低其投票权重,以及一直给予它的特殊否决权。相反,提案所增加的中国,印度,巴西以及其他新兴经济体配额主要是通过缩小欧洲国家的相关配额来实现的。

国际货币基金组织配额的变化是对新力量崛起以及欧洲统治衰落的一个局部而滞后的响应。事实上,把各国的赞助额与其责任相匹配的准则——有时被称为黄金准则(“谁拥有黄金,谁制定规则”)——也许是国际货币基金组织通常比其他国际组织(例如联合国大会)更有效的原因。

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