El precio de la independencia escocesa

NUEVA YORK – Si bien los ojos del mundo están posados sobre el referéndum escocés para independizarse del Reino Unido, Escocia no es la única que busca volver a trazar sus fronteras nacionales. Hay movimientos independentistas en muchas otras partes del mundo; de hecho, 39 estados nuevos se han sumado a las Naciones Unidas desde 1980. Muchos otros aspirantes están a la espera y probablemente un voto escocés positivo alentaría intentos similares.

La campaña proindependencia escocesa se basa en cuatro reclamos. El primero es cultural: proteger y fortalecer la identidad de los escoceses. El segundo es ideológico: llevar a Escocia hacia una socialdemocracia al estilo escandinavo. El tercero es político: acercar la gobernanza democrática a la gente. El cuarto es económico: reclamar una mayor porción del petróleo y el gas del Mar del Norte.

Los líderes políticos del Reino Unido y muchos gobiernos europeos insisten fuertemente para que los escoceses voten en contra de su independencia. La independencia escocesa, según la campaña en favor del «No», lograría pocos, si acaso alguno, de los beneficios anunciados; por el contrario, causaría muchas calamidades económicas: desde pánicos financieros hasta la fuga de empleos e industrias de Escocia. Además, una Escocia independiente podría ser excluida de la Unión Europea y la OTAN.

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