Il prezzo dell'indipendenza scozzese

NEW YORK – Anche se l'attenzione del mondo è ora rivolta al referendum sull'indipendenza della Scozia dal Regno Unito, quello scozzese non è certo l'unico tentativo di ridisegnare i confini nazionali. Movimenti per l'indipendenza sono presenti in molte parti del mondo, basti pensare che dal 1980 a oggi ben 39 nuovi Stati hanno aderito alle Nazioni Unite. Gli aspiranti all'indipendenza attendono dietro le quinte l'esito del voto scozzese, ed è probabile che una vittoria del sì contribuirebbe a rinsaldare le loro aspirazioni.

La campagna in favore dell'indipendenza scozzese si fonda su quattro rivendicazioni di natura, rispettivamente, culturale, ideologica, politica ed economica: proteggere e rafforzare l'identità del popolo scozzese; trasformare la Scozia in una democrazia sociale ispirata al modello scandinavo; avvicinare il governo democratico ai cittadini; rivendicare una quota maggiore di petrolio e gas del Mare del Nord.

I leader politici del Regno Unito e di molti governi europei stanno cercando di convincere gli scozzesi a votare contro l'indipendenza. L'indipendenza della Scozia, secondo i sostenitori del no, apporterebbe ben pochi, se non nessuno, dei benefici dichiarati, innescando, invece, una serie di disastri economici, che vanno dal panico finanziario alla fuga dei posti di lavoro e delle industrie dal paese. Inoltre, una Scozia indipendente rischierebbe di essere esclusa dall'Unione Europea e dalla NATO.

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