Der Preis der schottischen Unabhängigkeit

NEW YORK – Auch wenn die Augen der Welt derzeit auf das Referendum in Schottland über dessen Unabhängigkeit vom Vereinigten Königreich gerichtet sind: Nicht allein Schottland ist bestrebt, nationale Grenzen neu zu ziehen. Auch in vielen anderen Teilen der Welt gibt es Unabhängigkeitsbewegungen; tatsächlich sind seit 1980 39 neue Staaten den Vereinten Nationen beigetreten. Viele weitere Anwärter warten nur auf ihre Gelegenheit und dürften sich durch ein schottisches „Yes“ ermutigt fühlen.

Die Kampagne für die Unabhängigkeit Schottlands beruht auf vier Ansprüchen. Der erste ist kulturell: die Identität des schottischen Volkes zu schützen und stärken. Der zweite ist ideologisch: Schottland zu einer sozialen Demokratie skandinavischen Stils zu entwickeln. Der dritte ist politisch: demokratische Regierungsführung näher an das Volk zu heranzuführen. Und der vierte ist wirtschaftlicher Art: Anspruch auf einen größeren Teil des Nordseeöls und -gases zu erheben.

Die politischen Spitzen des Vereinigten Königreichs und viele europäische Regierungen drängen die Schotten, gegen die Unabhängigkeit zu votieren. Die Unabhängigkeit Schottlands, so das „No“-Lager, würde wenn überhaupt nur wenige der behaupteten Vorteile bringen; im Gegenteil: Sie würde viel wirtschaftliches Unheil anrichten – von einer Finanzpanik bis hin zum Abzug von Arbeitsplätzen und Industrie aus Schottland. Zudem würde ein unabhängiges Schottland womöglich aus der Europäischen Union und der NATO ausgeschlossen.

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