Una profunda descarbonización

NUEVA YORK – Echemos un vistazo a lo que ha ocurrido en todo el mundo este mes pasado. La ola de calor en Australia llenó los titulares cuando las temperaturas alcanzaron los 45º centígrados y entorpecieron el torneo de tenis Abierto de Australia. La extremada sequía de California obligó al Gobernador a declarar el estado de emergencia. Unas graves inundaciones en Indonesia causaron la muerte a docenas de personas y desplazaron a decenas de miles de ellas. La contaminación mezclada con la niebla e inducida por el uso del carbón en Beijing obligó a sus habitantes a permanecer en sus casas, cerrar las autopistas y desviar los vuelos. Semejantes sucesos son advertencias diarias al mundo: despierta antes de que sea demasiado tarde.

Hemos entrado en la era del desarrollo sostenible. O hacemos las paces con el planeta o destruimos nuestra prosperidad, tan costosamente obtenida. La opción parece evidente, pero nuestras acciones resultan más expresivas que nuestras palabras. La Humanidad sigue avanzando por una vía de ruina, movida por la avaricia y la ignorancia a corto plazo.

Gran parte de la crisis medioambiental mundial (aunque no toda) se debe al sistema energético basado en los combustibles fósiles del mundo. Más del 80 por ciento de toda  la energía primaria del mundo procede del carbón, del petróleo y del gas. Cuando se queman esos combustibles fósiles, emiten dióxido de carbono, que, a su vez, cambia el clima de la Tierra. Los datos físicos básicos se conocen desde hace más de un siglo.

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