Ucrania y la crisis del derecho internacional

NUEVA YORK – Las acciones de Rusia en Ucrania constituyen una grave y peligrosa violación del derecho internacional. En 1994, Ucrania accedió a entregar el arsenal atómico que había heredado de la Unión Soviética, a cambio de un compromiso solemne por parte de Estados Unidos, el Reino Unido y Rusia de proteger la integridad territorial y la soberanía de Ucrania. Ahora Rusia faltó a su promesa, con lo que no solo perjudica a Ucrania sino que también debilita el marco jurídico internacional para la prevención de la proliferación nuclear.

A menos que Rusia modifique su rumbo (algo que por ahora parece improbable), las consecuencias globales pueden ser graves. Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea impondrán sanciones que debilitarán la economía de Rusia y la del mundo, estimulando aún más las tensiones y el nacionalismo. Cualquier error, de un lado o del otro, podría llevar a una catástrofe violenta. Basta recordar la espiral de hybris y errores de cálculo que condujo al estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial, del que este año se cumple un siglo.

Pero más allá de los temores que suscita la crisis de Ucrania, no hay que olvidar el desprecio generalizado del derecho internacional que se ha visto en años recientes. Sin pretender restar gravedad a las últimas acciones de Rusia, hay que señalar que se producen en un contexto de violaciones reiteradas del derecho internacional por parte de Estados Unidos, la Unión Europea y la OTAN. Cada una de esas violaciones socava el frágil edificio del derecho internacional y expone al mundo al riesgo de caer en una guerra de todos contra todos sin ninguna sujeción legal.

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