L’Ucraina e la Crisi del Diritto Internazionale

NEW YORK – Le azioni della Russia in Ucraina costituiscono una violazione grave e pericolosa del diritto internazionale. Nel 1994, l’Ucraina ha accettato di rinunciare alle armi nucleari che aveva ereditato dall’Unione Sovietica, in cambio del solenne impegno da parte di Stati Uniti, Regno Unito e Russia di proteggere l’integrità territoriale e la sovranità del paese. La Russia ha violato questo impegno, non solo danneggiando l’Ucraina, ma anche minando il quadro giuridico internazionale per la prevenzione della proliferazione nucleare.

A meno che la Russia non cambi rotta – cosa che sembra improbabile a breve - le conseguenze globali possono diventare gravi. Gli Stati Uniti e l’Unione Europea imporranno sanzioni, indebolendo l’economia russa e l’economia mondiale - e alimentando ancora di più la tensione e il nazionalismo. Errori da una parte o dall’altra potrebbero portare ad una violenta catastrofe. Ricordiamo solo la spirale di arroganza ed errori di valutazione che hanno portato allo scoppio della prima guerra mondiale, esattamente un secolo fa.

Per quanto sia spaventosa la crisi ucraina, non si deve trascurare la più generale delegittimazione del diritto internazionale degli ultimi anni. Senza sminuire la gravità delle recenti azioni della Russia, va rilevato che queste rientrano nel contesto delle ripetute violazioni del diritto internazionale da parte degli Stati Uniti, della UE e della NATO. Tutte le violazioni di questo tipo ne compromettono il fragile edificio, e rischiano di gettare il mondo in una guerra senza legge di tutti contro tutti.

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