城市与可持续发展

纽约—菲律宾的塔克洛班(Tacloban)成为近几年来因气候灾难而被毁的城市名单上的新名字。这一名单包括新奥尔良、曼谷、莫斯科、纽约、北京、里约热内卢、太子港……等等。许多临河和临海的世界上大城市面临着海平面上升的威胁和越来越严重的风暴。因此,正在确定中的全球发展新日程必须赋予城市力量,让它们成为二十一世纪可持续发展的领导者。

如今,城市对世界经济的重要性前所未有。在工业革命前,人类历史可以说是一部农业史。只有大约10%的人类生活在城市中。如今,这一比例为53%左右,并有望在2050年升至67%左右。

城市的人均收入高于农村,因此预计如今世界城市占据着全球收入的80%以上,其中最大的600个城市就占据了一半。未来几十年中新增就业岗位大部分也将出现在城市,为数亿年轻人提供安身立命之本,在中国和巴西等国家更能有助于减少极端贫困。

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