Snižte výdaje, chudé ušetřete

PAŘÍŽ – Proč některé vlády utrácejí více než jiné? Tato otázka je složitější, než vypadá, a to zejména v případě evropských vlád.

Odpověď se může zdát zřejmá, porovnáme-li například Dánsko (kde veřejné výdaje bez úrokových plateb z dluhu dosáhly v roce 2012 výše 58% HDP) a Spojené státy (kde stejný ukazatel činil 35%). Zdá se, že nepopiratelným vysvětlením jsou rozsáhlé veřejné služby a rozvinutý sociální stát. Data jako by potvrzovala proslulý výrok německé kancléřky Angely Merkelové, podle něhož tkví problém Evropy v tom, že představuje 7% světové populace, 25% světového HDP a 50% světových sociálních výdajů.

Z tohoto hlediska čelí evropské vlády nepříjemné volbě. Většina se jich snaží hledat cesty, jak udržet na uzdě veřejný dluh, snížit schodky a seškrtat výdaje, aniž tím zhorší situaci chudších občanů. Soudě podle zkušeností z USA a dalších neevropských zemí se však možná budou muset rozhodnout mezi nesolventností a nerovností. Protože tyto vlády dospěly do fáze, kdy už daně prakticky nelze zvyšovat, nemohou splatit své dluhy a zároveň ponechat sociální výdaje na současné úrovni.

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