Il bivio dell’eurozona

PARIGI – Con l’avvicinarsi del 2014, i mercati finanziari si sono tranquillizzati ed i politici europei hanno tirato un sospiro di sollievo. Ma i problemi fondamentali che hanno portato alla crisi dell’euro negli ultimi quattro anni non sono stati risolti ed è giunto il tempo di affrontarli. Così almeno sostengono due importanti pubblicazioni recenti; la prima del Glienicker Gruppe, un gruppo bipartisan di economisti, avvocati e analisti politici tedeschi, e la seconda di Ashoka Mody, ex funzionario del Fondo Monetario Internazionale che lavora ora presso l’Università di Princeton e il think tank europeo Bruegel.

A parte l’urgenza di agire, gli autori concordano in realtà su pochi altri concetti. Il gruppo tedesco sostiene che, per sopravvivere, l’euro abbia bisogno di un’unione politica con un budget comune. Mody afferma invece che negli ultimi cinquant’anni i piani federalisti dell’Unione europea sono stati solo fonte di delusione e che l’unico modo per progredire è quello di abbandonare gli sforzi di Bruxelles mirati ad armonizzare le politiche nazionali e di perseguire invece l’idea di un’unione decentralizzata.

La premessa condivisa da entrambi è in effetti giusta: la condiscendenza relativa alla crisi dell’euro continua ad essere fuorviante, mentre le correzioni finora apportate non sono sufficienti a garantire una stabilità durevole e la tregua momentanea dovrebbe essere pertanto utilizzata per delineare l’architettura permanente dell’unione. Inoltre, l’arrivo di un governo di coalizione bipartisan in Germania, insieme alla nomina di una nuova amministrazione europea dopo le elezioni parlamentari europee a maggio, aprono un varco a nuove idee.

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