法国经济的治疗方法

巴黎——法国被世界各国公认为未能拥抱全球化或社会经济模式现代化的目标。近几十年来法国民众比以往任何时候都更加悲观地看待本国的未来。现在的问题是,法国究竟能否找到前进的方向,扫净阴霾并重建繁荣的未来?

这一切必须以明确的诊断为出发点。相比25年前发展水平相当的国家,法国经济未能取得上佳的表现。差距虽然不大——人均GDP只差6个百分点——但令人担忧的趋势足以呼唤改革措施的出台。此外,失业人数一直处于可耻的高水平。虽然法国在医疗、收入不平等及防止贫困等领域社会指标名列前茅,但因此付出的代价是公共开支及债务逐年攀升。

出现这种情况究其原因并非因为法国经济缺乏潜力。法国无疑自有其弱点——比方说中等规模企业数量偏少、劳资关系水火不容及公共部门效率低下。但法国同样具有令人羡慕的优势:比如工作适龄人口平均教育状况远好于25年前;与多数邻国相比人口年龄颇具优势;目前比德国和英国集中了更多全球顶尖企业;基础设施条件非常出色。法国的资产负债表状况无法解释目前的经济低迷。

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