Las grietas del cambio climático

MADRID – Las grietas de las paredes, por pequeñas que sean, pueden tener consecuencias graves. Ningún edificio está a salvo. Si en lugar de repararlas se deja que crezcan hasta que se declaren inhabitables, las familias tienen que mudarse a otra casa. La población de la Tierra, sin embargo, no puede. Las casas, aunque caras, son reemplazables. El planeta no lo es. El cambio climático amenaza con destruir nuestro entorno y nuestro medio de vida, y lo hemos sabido desde hace años. El Panel Intergubernamental del Cambio Climático (IPCC por sus siglas en inglés) ha estudiado el fenómeno desde 1988. Hace ya 22 años, bajo la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático (UNFCCC por sus siglas en inglés) 195 Estados acordaron prevenir cambios climáticos peligrosos.

Era 1992. En 2014 seguimos transitando la peligrosa senda de la inacción. Pese a los acuerdos internacionales sobre la necesidad de limitar el calentamiento global a 2º, el IPCC calcula subidas de las temperaturas, para final de siglo, de entre 3,7 y 4,8º. La grieta se sigue abriendo, y algunos de los habitantes del mundo –especialmente los más vulnerables– empiezan a ver caer el agua por su pared.

¿Quién es responsable? ¿Quién tiene la culpa y quién debe pagar para poner freno al calentamiento? Este es el debate que ha dominado las discusiones internacionales de cambio climático desde el principio. En el documento de referencia del UNFCCC están contenidas responsabilidades comunes pero diferenciadas, además de las capacidades respectivas de los Estados. Es importante distinguir entre responsabilidad causal y responsabilidad de remediar, como señalaba recientemente Claus Offe: una cosa es discutir quién tiene la culpa, otra quién tiene la responsabilidad de solventarlo.

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