Patience révolutionnaire

MADRID – Le 17 décembre 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi s’immolait par le feu à Sidi Bouzid en Tunisie. Dans les semaines qui suivirent, la révolte populaire provoquée par l’acte de Bouazizi se répandit bien au-delà des frontières tunisiennes pour atteindre une grande part du monde arabe.

En Europe, l’Ukraine et d’autres pays troublés comme la Bosnie ont débuté leurs longues transitions, encore inachevées, vers la démocratie il y a un quart de siècle. Le monde arabe, par contre, en est à peine à sa troisième année de transition, un battement de paupière à l’échelle de l’Histoire. Pourtant, il y a déjà eu des changements significatifs et la région continue d’avancer – même si la destination demeure incertaine. Comme dans d’autres régions du monde, les pays arabes ont besoin de temps pour parvenir à la démocratie et au pluralisme réclamés par leurs peuples. Ils atteindront leurs buts – mais pas en trois ans.

En fait, les évènements dans le Moyen-Orient d’aujourd’hui sont encore façonnés par les changements radicaux survenus après la première guerre mondiale. Historiquement, la plupart des Arabes étaient regroupés sous différents califats. Après la dissolution de l’Empire Ottoman en 1923, deux états nations (l’Iran et la Turquie) émergèrent, et les Arabes furent distribués en 22 nouveaux pays généralement sous domination coloniale française ou britannique.  

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