Iraqi boys on street corner in Baghdad Cui Xinyu/ZumaPress

Comment trouver un équilibre au Moyen-Orient

MADRID – Les récentes victoires en Irak et en Syrie de l'Etat islamique en Irak et au Levant (EIIL), confirment que plus d’une décennie après le début de la guerre en Irak, la stabilité au Moyen-Orient est toujours sur le fil du rasoir. L’EIIL – dont l’objectif transnational est un califat englobant de larges portions de l’ouest de la Syrie et du centre de l’Irak – reflète le caractère interconnecté des défis que pose la région et la menace qu’il représente illustre la nécessité d’un nouveau cadre d’action pour le Moyen-Orient.

L’EIIL a vu le jour comme une branche d’al Qaïda, après l’invasion américaine de l’Irak. Bien qu’il ait été expulsé du mouvement al Qaïda en février dernier, incroyable, mais vrai, pour ses tactiques extrêmement brutales, il a prospéré, grâce au terrain fertile fourni par la guerre civile qui fait rage en Syrie et au soutien que lui apporte la population sunnite irakienne, de plus en plus mise à l’écart par le gouvernement chiite du pays.

La position de l’Irak, sur la ligne de démarcation entre les sunnites et les chiites – dont la rivalité sectaire est devenue le principal axe des affrontements dans la région – est une source d’instabilité dans ce pays depuis des décennies. L’effondrement du régime de Saddam Hussein a donné lieu à une flambée de violence sectaire, sauf au nord du pays où le Kurdistan bénéficie d’une autonomie considérable par rapport au gouvernement de Bagdad.

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