Stabiliser l’Ukraine

MADRID – Mikhaïl Gorbatchev, autrefois à la manœuvre d’une dissolution de l’Union soviétique qui ne vit que très peu de coups de feu tirés, a lui-même exprimé son soutien à l’annexion de la Crimée menée par le président russe Vladimir Poutine. Le peuple de Crimée, affirme-t-il, a en effet rectifié l’une des erreurs de l’histoire soviétique.

Le point de vue de Gorbatchev est largement répandu en Russie. Après la désintégration de l’Union soviétique en 1991, la Russie est passée du statut de superpuissance à celui de contrée isolée. Trois anciennes républiques soviétiques ont ainsi rejoint l’Union européenne et l’OTAN, affichant non seulement un désir de démocratie et de prospérité, mais également la volonté de ne plus jamais faire partie de la Russie. En décidant d’annexer la Crimée, le président Poutine, pour l’instant massivement soutenu par l’opinion publique nationale, semble mettre un terme à la frustration post-impériale des vingt dernières années.

À plusieurs reprises depuis 1991, la Russie a en revanche explicitement reconnu l’intégrité territoriale de l’Ukraine. Cette reconnaissance fit partie intégrante de l’accord signé à Yalta en 1992, qui partagea la flotte de la mer Noire, ainsi que de ce contrat de bail signé en 1997 qui permit à la flotte de demeurer dans Sébastopol. L’intégrité territoriale de l’Ukraine fut également reconnue par l’accord de dénucléarisation de 1994, conclu entre le Royaume-Uni, la Russie et les États-Unis, puis à nouveau en avril 2011, au moment de l’extension du bail de Sébastopol par le président ukrainien de l’époque, Viktor Ianoukovitch.

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