页岩革命的全球足迹

马德里—目前,数千谈判员齐聚联合国华沙气候变化对话会,为2015年全面全球协定绘制蓝图。但是,在谈判员们展开工作的同时,世界能源图景正在发生重大变化。世界上大部分二氧化碳排放来自能源生产和运输过程,因此必须密切监控这些活动的变化。

特别地,正在美国展开的页岩能源革命所掀起的冲击波正在引发全球反响。随着液压致裂法的出现,短短五年内美国石油产量已增加了30%,天然气产量增加了25%。21世纪初,页岩气对于美国天然气供给几乎无关紧要;到去年已占天然气供给量的34%,美国能源信息局(US Energy Information Administration)预计到2040年将升至一半。拜页岩气所赐,美国国内能源价格大幅下降。

拥有得天独厚地理条件的美国正在迈向能源自给,并收获着显而易见的经济利益。非常规油气开发支持了210万个工作岗位,2012年将为政府贡献740亿美元的税收收入和专利费。随着欧洲和亚洲气价上涨,美国产业竞争力迅速提高。炼油和石化公司纷纷涌向美国。

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