日本的努力徒劳无益

大阪——失去一位首相还可以看成一种不幸,但一年中失去两位首相恐怕只能是疏忽大意。在首相安倍晋三和福田康夫接连辞职的情况下,奥斯卡·王尔德的这种说法恰当总结了目前日本的政治局势。执政的自民党(LDP)在众议院选举即将开始时勉强拼凑出一位新的领袖,而日本则不得不再次接受看守政府的管理。问题在于:到底是谁或者哪件事粗心大意?是自民党?是宪法?还是选民?

过去两年来,执政的自民-公明党联盟一直以三分之二的多数控制着手握重权的众议院。一年来,处在反对党地位的日本民主党(DPJ)和其它迷你政党一直把持着参议院,掌握着否决法案的权力。结果政治局势不稳和停滞也就不可避免。问题是再一次选举无法清理政治上的混乱状态,只能让这样的瘫痪局面继续下去。日本的政治体系需要其经济久已需要的那种结构改革。可是和日本经济一样,日本政界人士似乎也没有准备好采取任何大胆的措施。

在这样一个社会生活水平下降和经济两极化日趋严重的时刻,自民党和民主党正在争论如何管理不断升高的通货膨胀率——后者是前首相小泉纯一郎2001-2005年市场化改革的遗留问题。争论的焦点集中在是否应该提高消费税,以维持这个国家极为紧张的社会保障体系。行政和政府改革只是偶尔才在不知不觉中成为政策争论的核心问题。

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