La réforme inachevée du Japon

TOKYO – Les révolutions, dit-on souvent, ne se produisent pas quand la population est désespérée. Elles éclatent lorsque les attentes se font pressantes. C’est peut-être pour cette raison que les révolutions se terminent si souvent par une déception. Ces attentes, en général placées trop haut au départ, ne trouvent pas de réponse et débouchent sur la colère, les désillusions et parfois sur des actes de violence terrifiants.

Le changement de gouvernement au Japon en 2009 – lorsque le parti démocrate du Japon (PDJ) a gagné les élections et mis au fin au monopole quasi ininterrompu que détenait le parti libéral démocrate (PLD) sur le pouvoir depuis 1955 – n’était pas une révolution. Mais à l’instar de l’élection du premier président noir de l’histoire des Etats-Unis, ce nouveau gouvernement, qui promettait une rupture radicale avec le passé, a donné naissance à de nouveaux espoirs.

Ce constat s’applique davantage encore au Japon qu’aux Etats-Unis. La victoire électorale du PDJ n’a pas seulement renouvelé le paysage politique, elle devait également changer la nature même de la politique japonaise. Le Japon allait enfin devenir une démocratie à part entière et pas seulement un État à parti unique, de facto, gouverné par des bureaucrates.

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