Las opciones del Japón

TOKIO – Las actuales tensiones entre China y el Japón han hecho que se vuelva a hablar de lo mucho que este último país ha caído desde sus años de gloria en el decenio de 1980. En la medida en que esa sensación de decadencia está basada en la realidad, ¿puede recuperarse el Japón?

La economía del Japón ha sufrido dos decenios de crecimiento lento a causa de las deficientes decisiones en materia de políticas que siguieron al desplome de la enorme burbuja de precios de los activos del país a comienzos del decenio de 1990. En 2010, la economía de China superó a la del Japón en tamaño total, aunque sólo es una sexta parte de su tamaño desde punto de vista de la renta por habitante. En 1988, ocho de las diez empresas más importantes del mundo por su capitalización en el mercado eran japonesas; hoy ninguna lo es.

Pero, pese a sus recientes resultados deficientes, el Japón conserva unos recursos de poder impresionantes. Su economía ocupa el tercer puesto de las economías nacionales por su tamaño y cuenta con industrias avanzadas y las fuerzas militares no atómicas mejor equipadas de los países asiáticos.

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