Reinterpretación de la Constitución Japonesa

TOKIO – Al aproximarse el 70° aniversario de la derrota de Japón en la Segunda Guerra Mundial ha habido muchos debates – y lamentos – sobre el resurgimiento de las fricciones históricas en Asia oriental. No obstante, las recientes tensiones en la región pueden reflejar en parte la falta de progreso en otra esfera, que ha quedado olvidada: la reforma constitucional japonesa. En efecto, a pesar de la impotencia que quedó tan claramente de manifiesto con la decapitación de dos rehenes japoneses a manos del Estado Islámico, Japón no ha adoptado una sola enmienda a la “constitución de la paz” que le impusieron las fuerzas estadounidenses de ocupación en 1947.

A primera vista esto podría no ser muy sorprendente. Después de todo, la constitución cumplía una función importante: al garantizar que Japón no sería una amenaza militar en el futuro, permitió al país acabar con la ocupación extranjera y dedicarse a la reconstrucción y la democratización. Pero consideremos lo siguiente: en 1949 Alemania adoptó una constitución aprobada por los aliados en circunstancias similares, a la que ha hecho docenas de enmiendas.

Además, mientras que la constitución de Alemania o Ley Básica autoriza el uso de la fuerza militar en defensa propia o como parte de un acuerdo de seguridad colectiva, la constitución japonesa estipula el abandono total y permanente de "la amenaza o el uso de la fuerza como medio para solucionar disputas internacionales". Japón es el único país del mundo que tiene esas restricciones, impuestas no solo para impedir una reactivación militar sino también para castigarlo por las políticas de su gobierno durante la guerra, y mantenerlas no es realista.

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