Faut-il interdire les partis extrémistes ?

PRINCETON – Le combat engagé par le gouvernement grec à l’encontre du parti d’extrême droite Aube dorée relance une question épineuse qui semblait pourtant avoir disparu depuis la fin de la Guerre froide : y a-t-il une place pour les partis de nature anti-démocratique au sein des démocraties libérales ?

Ces démocraties libérales sont bien entendu confrontées à diverses menaces depuis l’effondrement du communisme en 1989 – menaces qui émanent toutefois principalement de mouvements terroristes étrangers, qui ont tendance à rejeter la démarche consistant à former des partis politiques et à siéger au sein du parlement. Faut-il alors interdire ceux des partis extrémistes qui acceptent de prendre part à la bataille politique dans le cadre démocratique, ou considérer qu’une telle restriction de la liberté d’expression et d’association contredirait précisément en elle-même ce cadre démocratique ?

Il est avant tout essentiel que de telles questions soient confiées à des institutions non partisanes, de type Cours constitutionnelles, et non à d’autres partis politiques, dont les dirigeants seront systématiquement tentés de bannir leurs concurrents. Le malheur de la situation grecque réside dans le fait que les démarches de lutte contre Aube dorée semblent principalement défendre les intérêts du gouvernement, plutôt que d’être perçues comme le fruit d’une réflexion avisée et indépendante.

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