Erdoğan et le paradoxe du populismae

VIENNE – Le triomphe de Recep Tayyip Erdoğan à l’issue de la première élection présidentielle directe de la Turquie n’est pas une surprise. Erdoğan est populaire, et en tant que Premier ministre depuis 2003, il surfe sur une vague de succès économique. Mais c’est aussi un populiste qui a toujours tenu l’état et les médias d’une main ferme, diabolisant tous les critiques (y compris ses anciens alliés comme le prêcheur expatrié Fethullah Güllen) au passage.

Comme pour d’autres dirigeants populistes tels que le Premier ministre hongrois Viktor Orbán ou feu Hugo Chávez au Venezuela, il est difficile de réconcilier les promesse électorales d’Erdoğan et sa performance au pouvoir. De telles personnalités commencent généralement par attaquer leurs opposants sur la corruption en les accusant de prendre l’état en otage pour servir uniquement leurs propres intérêts politiques qui ignorent les intérêts du peuple. Pourtant, lorsqu’ils arrivent au pouvoir, ils finissent par se comporter de manière identique, considérant que l’état est leur propriété, ou celle de leur parti, et usant de la corruption, ou du moins l’approuvant.

Généralement, les perspectives électoralistes des populistes ne souffrent de cette apparente hypocrisie, comme vient de le démontrer si clairement le succès d’Erdoğan. Pourquoi ?

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