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伯克利—美国实验伊始,开国元勋之一亚历山大·汉密尔顿(Alexander Hamilton)严重怀疑民主制度。“任何人阅读希腊和意大利的小共和国的历史,都会对国家在暴政和暴乱两个极端间的来回震荡……感到恐怖和厌恶。”他在《联邦党人文集第9篇》(Federalist Papers No. 9)中写道。


但这些汉密尔顿所提出的“政治科学”的改进在君主制下完全可以和共和制下得到同样良好的应用,事实上,它们就来自君主制。十二世纪至十五世纪统治英格兰的金雀花王朝国王们对司法机关进行了职业化改造,并树立了征税前先经过议会同意的先例。类似地,常见于共和制的职业官僚和权利分配,也可见于十六世纪西班牙国王腓力二世的印度群岛委员会(Council of Indies)和卡斯提尔委员会(Council of Castile)。

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