L’économie bureaucratique de l’Europe

VARSOVIE – Le projet d’intégration européenne a du, depuis soixante ans, faire face à de nombreux défis : les difficultés économiques de l’après-guerre, le joug pesant du communisme, et les incertitudes du monde dans le sillage de la guerre froide. Mais, bien qu’elle les ai tous surmonté, cette Union Européenne qui compte aujourd’hui 28 états dont un grand nombre partage une monnaie commune, se voit confrontée à un tout autre défi, tout aussi important : celui de réduire le poids de la réglementation qui pèse lourdement sur ses principales industries.

Les entreprises européennes sont enferrées dans des règles et des règlementations, la plupart produites par des responsables non élus à Bruxelles dont la louable intention est d’harmoniser les conditions des entreprises dans l’ensemble de l’UE, mais qui finalement sape la créativité et le dynamisme commercial du continent. La performance économique s’en est trouvée ralentie au gré d’une productivité en déclin, et d’un chômage, surtout chez les jeunes, qui demeure obstinément élevé.

Les institutions de l’UE génèrent des milliers de réglementations, de directives et de décisions chaque année. 1 799 lois ont été promulguées en 2012 ; 2 062 en 2011. Certaines de ces lois, promulguées il y a fort longtemps pour une Communauté Européenne de six membres fondateurs, sont encore en vigueur. C’est cette lourdeur administrative qui constitue un frein dans les affaires et dissuade les entrepreneurs.

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