Italys Newly appointed Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Italys Interior Minister and deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini, Italys Labor and Industry Minister and deputy PM Luigi Di Maio and Italys Undersecretary for Prime Minister Giancarlo Giorgetti ANDREAS SOLARO/AFP/Getty Images

意大利对欧洲的四重威胁

斯坦福—意大利新任经济和财政部长吉奥瓦尼·特里亚(Giovanni Tria)试图向市场保证,五星运动(Five Star Movement)/联盟党(League)的新联合政府不会放弃欧元,也不会违反欧盟财政规则放任预算赤字膨胀。但欧洲绝非高枕无忧。意大利的民粹主义疑欧派政府进一步突显出意大利银行业、公共债务、劳工和移民政策以及增长模式所带来的中期风险。

今年11月,将欧洲经济共同体变为欧盟的马斯特里赫特条约将迎来签订25周年;而明年则是欧元发行20周年。这两项制度不但存活下来,还实现了扩张,尽管希腊主权债务危机和英国退出欧盟的决定对它们造成了挑战。但是,欧元区固然抵挡住了这些风暴,但它仍然受到一系列悬而未决的问题的困扰。

近几年来,民族主义和反移民情绪的日益高涨导致民粹主义政党崛起,这些政党愿意挑战欧盟规则,对抗布鲁塞尔官僚。2008年金融危机以来,许多欧洲银行表现很不稳定,欧洲多国主权、公司和家庭债务水平节节攀升。尽管失业率有所下降,但仍然是美国的两倍。在经历了最近的反弹后,欧洲总体经济增长率再次下降。

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