unemployed young people Jasper Juinen | Getty Images

La jeunesse italienne mise sur l'étranger

MILAN – Au cours des 20 dernières années, près d'un demi-million d'Italiens âgés de 18 à 39 ans ont quitté leur pays pour rejoindre l'étranger, et notamment des pays d'Union européenne plus dynamiques sur le plan économique, tels que l'Allemagne, la France ou encore le Royaume-Uni. Et il ne s'agit là que des chiffres officiels, le nombre de ces expatriés étant probablement beaucoup plus élevé, peut-être plus de deux fois supérieur au chiffre annoncé. Ainsi, pourquoi les jeunes Italiens sont-ils si nombreux à partir ?

La réponse ne peut résider du côté de la représentation politique. Depuis 2013, la proportion de parlementaires italiens âgés de moins de 40 ans est passée de 7 à 13 %, et l'Italie est aujourd'hui dirigée par l'un des plus jeunes gouvernements que connaissent les pays développés (en deuxième position derrière la France). De même, le chef du gouvernement italien Matteo Renzi, âgé de 41 ans, est le plus jeune Premier ministre que l'Italie ait jamais eu à sa tête.

Et pourtant, les jeunes Italiens demeurent profondément insatisfaits de la situation de leur pays, et des opportunités économiques qu'offre l'Italie. En effet, malgré la promesse de Renzi consistant à appliquer des réformes destinées à rajeunir l'économie et les institutions nationales – promesse qui lui a permis d'accéder au pouvoir en 2014 – quelque 90 000 Italiens de moins de 40 ans ont depuis quitté le pays.

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