意大利的资本外逃

慕尼黑——8月,欧洲国际收支平衡危机冲出了欧元区外围国家范围,开始影响意大利。意大利国债息差开始上升,贝卢斯科尼政府再三收到警示,必须采取财政紧缩计划,欧洲央行也伸出了援手,提供了额外流动性。

危机期间,欧洲央行指示欧元区所有成员国的央行购买巨量意大利国债。各国央行并未披露各自的购买量是多少,但欧洲央行国债存量总额从8月4日的740亿欧元上升到了本月的1650亿欧元。增量中的巨大部分都来自意大利国债。

被迫购买了大部分意大利国债的德国央行强烈反对这一方案,但也于事无补。欧洲央行首席经济学家尤尔根·施塔克(Jürgen Stark)因此辞职。此前,德国央行总裁艾克塞尔·韦伯(Axel Weber)于2月因早先的债券买入行为而辞职。与此同时,新的德国央行总裁延斯·魏德曼(Jens Weidmann)公开反对这一方案,而德国总理伍尔夫也公开指责欧洲央行在打马斯特里赫特条约的擦边球。

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