El terremoto político de Israel

La política israelí esta experimentando su cambio más dramático en treinta años. El reacomodo de partidos y líderes es aún más notable porque los últimos acontecimientos -la decisión de Ariel Sharon de renunciar al partido gobernante, el Likud, la derrota de Shimon Peres como presidente del Partido Laborista, y el retiro de los laboristas del gobierno de la gran coalición de Sharon- fueron totalmente inesperados. Por ello, cobra más importancia entender el significado de estos cambios para el futuro de Israel, para la región y para el conflicto árabe-israelí.

Para decirlo de manera simple, el sistema político israelí llega al fin de su segunda era. Desde la independencia en 1948 hasta 1977, el laborista era el partido dominante antes de ceder el paso a una coalición de partidos conservadores, nacionalistas y centristas, aliados en el bloque del Likud. Desde entonces, los dos partidos han alternado en el poder, algunas veces en grandes coaliciones y frecuentemente en asociación con partidos pequeños.

A primera vista, la competencia de los partidos ha sido entre la "izquierda" y la "derecha", o entre "halcones" y "palomas". La verdad, por supuesto, es más compleja. Las clases sociales y los asuntos económicos, opacados por la persistencia de preocupaciones más existenciales -la seguridad física y la existencia continua del Estado- han desempeñado un papel mucho menos importante en Israel que en otras sociedades.

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