Politisches Erdbeben in Israel

In der israelischen Politik sind derzeit die dramatischsten Veränderungen der letzten 30 Jahre im Gange. Die Neuausrichtung der Parteien und die Umbesetzungen der Parteispitzen sind umso bemerkenswerter als die jüngsten Entwicklungen so völlig unerwartet eintraten – nämlich Ariel Sharons Entscheidung den regierenden Likud-Block zu verlassen, die Niederlage von Shimon Peres als Vorsitzender der Arbeiterpartei und ihr Ausstieg aus der großen Koalition. Es ist daher umso wichtiger, die Bedeutung dieser Veränderungen für die Zukunft Israels, die Region und den arabisch-israelischen Konflikt zu erkennen.

Einfach ausgedrückt ist das politische System Israels am Ende seiner zweiten Ära angelangt. Zwischen der Unabhängigkeit im Jahr 1948 und 1977 war die Arbeiterpartei die dominierende Kraft. Danach wurde sie von einer, im Likud-Block vereinigten Oppositionskoalition aus konservativen, nationalistischen und zentristischen Parteien an der Macht abgelöst. Seither waren beide Parteien abwechselnd an der Macht, manchmal in großen Koalitionen und oft in Bündnissen mit kleineren Parteien.

Oberflächlich betrachtet wird der Wettbewerb der Parteien zwischen „links“ und „rechts“ oder zwischen „Falken“ und „Tauben“ ausgetragen. Die Realität ist natürlich komplexer. Aufgrund existenzieller Fragen wie der physischen Sicherheit und den Fortbestand des Staates spielen Klassenfragen und wirtschaftliche Themen in Israel eine weit geringere Rolle als in anderen Gesellschaften.

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