Séisme politique en Israël

Le monde politique israélien est en train de vivre les changements les plus impressionnants qu'il ait connu depuis 30 ans. Le réalignement des partis et des dirigeants est particulièrement notable étant donné le caractère inattendu des derniers événements en date : la décision d'Ariel Sharon de quitter le Likoud, la défaite de Shimon Peres en tant que chef du Parti travailliste et le retrait des travaillistes du grand gouvernement de coalition de Sharon. Il n'en est que plus crucial d'appréhender la signification de ces changements pour l'avenir d'Israël, de la région, et du conflit israélo-arabe.

Schématiquement, le système politique israélien approche de la fin de sa deuxième ère. De l'indépendance en 1948 jusqu'en 1977, le Parti travailliste a dominé, avant de céder la place à une coalition d'opposition composée de conservateurs, de nationalistes et de partis centristes alliés dans le bloc du Likoud. Depuis cette époque, les deux partis se sont succédé au pouvoir tour à tour, parfois dans le cadre de grandes coalitions et parfois en partenariat avec des partis plus petits.

En surface, la rivalité entre partis s'est jouée entre “gauche” et “droite,” ou “faucons” et “colombes.” La vérité, bien sûr, est plus complexe. Les classes sociales et les problèmes économiques, à l'ombre d'inquiétudes existentielles plus persistantes, comme la sécurité physique et la pérennité de l'État, ont joué un rôle bien moins important en Israël que dans d'autres sociétés.

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