Gali Tibbon/AFP/Getty Images

Israël : les faucons sont au gouvernement et les colombes dans l’armée

PRINCETON – En Israël, les plus hautes autorités de défense en viennent souvent à considérer la paix avec les Palestiniens comme une condition nécessaire de la sécurité du pays ; en charge du maintien de l’ordre dans les territoires occupés par Israël depuis la guerre des Six-Jours, en 1967, les haut-gradés de l’armée et de la sécurité ont naturellement tendance à encourager les mesures politiques qui mettraient fin à l’occupation. Et pour l’instant le gouvernement ne montre aucun intérêt pour la recherche d’une solution permanente.

Afin de comprendre cette fracture, il n’est pas inutile de se souvenir du défunt Meir Dagan, major général de l’Armée de défense d’Israël (Tsahal), alors directeur du Mossad, l’agence de renseignement israélienne. Voici quelques années, je faisais partie d’un groupe d’experts, réunis à l’occasion d’une conférence à Jérusalem par Shimon Peres, qui était alors président de l’État d’Israël. À ma gauche était assis Dagan, qui venait de passer huit années à la tête du Mossad ; à ma droite, Dore Gold, ancien universitaire et ancien ambassadeur.

Les deux hommes défendaient des positions très différentes sur la meilleure façon de garantir la sécurité d’Israël, et il est intéressant de récapituler leurs arguments.

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