Israel y Palestina después de Oslo

RAMALA – El 13 de septiembre de 1993, Simón Peres y Mahmoud Abbas se reunieron en el Jardín Meridional de la Casa Blanca para firmar la Declaración de Principios Israel-OLP o Acuerdos de Oslo. Después, el dirigente de la OLP Yaser Arafat y el Primer Ministro de Israel Yitzhak Rabin sellaron el acuerdo con un histórico apretón de manos.

Los Acuerdos de Oslo, resultado de las conversaciones secretas que había alentado el Gobierno de Noruega y que se habían celebrado en la capital de este país, disponían un período de transición de cinco años durante el cual las fuerzas israelíes se retirarían de la Faja de Gaza y zonas no especificadas de la Ribera Occidental y se establecería una Autoridad Palestina. Las cartas de reconocimiento entre la OLP e Israel acompañaron el acuerdo. El objetivo en última instancia, aunque nunca se declaró explícitamente, era el de la creación de un Estado palestino dentro, aproximadamente, de las fronteras de 1967.

Pero los objetivos expuestos en los Acuerdos de Oslo siguen sin cumplirse. En realidad, no es probable que el acuerdo sobreviva a Peres, que cuenta 89 años, y a Abbas, que cuenta 77, ahora presidentes de Israel y de la Autoridad Palestina, respectivamente. Varios factores contribuyeron al deterioro de las perspectivas para una paz duradera.

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