Israël et la Palestine après Oslo

RAMALLAH – Le 13 septembre 1993, Shimon Pérès et Mahmoud Abbas se rencontraient sur la pelouse de la Maison Blanche pour signer la Déclaration de principe Israël-OLP, les accords d'Oslo. Yasser Arafat, le dirigeant de l'OLP, et Yitzhak Rabin, le Premier ministre israélien, ont alors scellé cet événement d'une poignée de main historique.

Les accords d'Oslo sont l'aboutissement de négociations secrètes menées dans cette ville sous l'égide du gouvernement norvégien. Ils prévoyaient une période transitoire de cinq ans durant laquelle les forces israéliennes se retireraient de la bande de Gaza et d'une zone non précisée de Cisjordanie, et une Autorité palestinienne serait créée. Les accords d'Oslo étaient accompagnés de lettres de reconnaissance entre l'OLP et Israël. L'objectif final, même s'il n'était pas formulé explicitement, était de créer un Etat palestinien situé sensiblement à l'intérieur des frontières de 1967.

Mais les objectifs fixés par les accords d'Oslo ne sont toujours pas atteints. Ils ne vont sans doute pas survivre à Pérès, 89 ans, et à Abbas, 77 ans, les présidents respectifs d'Israël et de l'Autorité palestinienne. Plusieurs éléments ont contribué à ce que s'éloigne la perspective d'une paix durable.

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