L’islamismo militante e lo scetticismo sui vaccini

LONDRA – Sappiamo esattamente come sradicare la poliomielite. Dagli anni 80, una campagna internazionale di vaccinazione guidata dall’Organizzazione mondiale della Sanità ha quasi estirpato del tutto il virus. Una malattia che ha ucciso o paralizzato mezzo milioni di persone l’anno ora ne infetta solo poche centinaia.

Gli elementi ostativi allo sradicamento del virus non sono i vincoli medici o tecnici, bensì le resistenze politiche rispetto a una campagna di vaccinazione. Le uniche aree in cui il virus continua a manifestarsi condividono analogie preoccupanti. Dal 2012 il 95% dei casi di poliomielite si sono verificati in cinque Paesi – Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria, Somalia e Siria – tutti colpiti da insurrezioni islamiste. Per sradicare la poliomielite è necessario comprendere bene questo nesso.

L’opposizione islamista ai programmi di vaccinazione è spesso riconducibile all’idea che i vaccini siano una cospirazione occidentale per danneggiare i musulmani e che i vaccini rendano sterili i bambini, diffondano l’Hiv o contengano maiale. Ma è importante notare che i jihadisti in Siria e Afghanistan hanno dato ampio supporto alle campagne di vaccinazione antipolio. Per debellare il virus, dovremo andare oltre alla visione degli islamisti come fanatici violenti opposti alla scienza occidentale e osservare attentamente gli specifici contesti politici in cui non ha ancora avuto successo la campagna di sradicamento.

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