La Malaisie face à l'islamisme

La diversité des groupes religieux et ethniques qui composent la Malaisie lui confèrent un caractère multiculturel très particulier. Néanmoins, elle est à plus de 50% musulmane. Est-ce pour autant un Etat musulman ? La Constitution malaisienne fournit des arguments tant en faveur d'une réponse positive que négative à cette question fondamentale et le statu-quo à tendance laïque est aujourd'hui gravement mis à l'épreuve.

Rédigée en 1957 par un groupe d'experts sous les auspices de la Grande-Bretagne qui gouvernait alors le pays, la Constitution comporte deux clauses contradictoires. D'une part l'article 3 décrète que l'islam est la religion de la Fédération et que seul l'islam peut être prêché aux musulmans, d'autre part l'article 11 garantit la liberté de religion pour tous. C'est ainsi que la Malaisie a établit un code civil d'application universelle et la loi islamique qui s'applique uniquement aux musulmans dans les affaires d'ordre privé ou familial.

Récemment, des groupes musulmans ont appelé le gouvernement à faire de la Malaisie un Etat musulman en s'appuyant sur l'article 3 et sur le fait que la majorité de la population est musulmane. Leur objectif final serait de voir la Malaisie régie par la loi musulmane.

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