Evangélisme musulman

On croit souvent que le retour en force du religieux et le radicalisme politique parmi les musulmans qui résident dans les pays occidentaux reflète les traditions et les conflits du Moyen-Orient ou du monde musulman au sens large. Mais le salafisme (radicalisme fondamentaliste religieux) est avant tout la conséquence de la mondialisation et de l'occidentalisation de l'islam et plus généralement du découplage entre religion et culture.

Toutes les formes de fondamentalisme religieux reposent sur la notion de religion "pure", indépendamment de l'environnement culturel et de l'influence du milieu extérieur. Le renouveau actuel de l'islam est porteur du même dogmatisme, du même communautarisme et du même scripturalisme que les mouvements évangélistes américains : les uns et les autres rejettent la culture, la philosophie et même la théologie, en faveur d'une lecture littérale des textes sacrés et de ce qu'ils considèrent comme un accès direct à la vérité au moyen de la foi individuelle.

Des livres récents publiés en Occident, par exemple Qu'est-ce que l'islam ?, Que signifie être musulman ?, ou encore Comment faire l'expérience de l'islam ? traduisent cette situation. Il est facile de jeûner pendant le ramadan en Afghanistan, au Pakistan ou en Egypte, même si on ne le veut pas. Mais un musulman vivant en Europe est contraint d'objectiver la religion. Les oulémas (savants en religion) ne sont d'aucun recours aux croyants et sont contraints de chercher des critères de pureté religieuse qui n'ont plus aucun lien avec une culture donnée.

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