Quran, sacred book of Islam

El camino del islam hacia la modernidad

UPPSALA – Muchos miembros de la comunidad musulmana han expresado desde hace tiempo su desacuerdo con la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos (DUDH) de las Naciones Unidas. La declaración, según atestiguan estos críticos, fue creada por potencias coloniales con una larga historia de graves violaciones a los derechos humanos y representa un intento más de unos pocos actores occidentales para imponer su voluntad sobre los países musulmanes. Los conservadores y fundamentalistas islámicos a van un paso más allá y declaran que ninguna invención humana puede igualar —y mucho menos reemplazar— a la ley sharía, que representa la palabra de Dios.

Este choque entre las normas seculares de los derechos humanos según la ONU y la doctrina religiosa musulmana refleja el conflicto más amplio entre el islam y la modernidad, un conflicto que ha dejado a algunos ciudadanos de los países musulmanes —entre ellos, las mujeres y los no musulmanes— en una situación extremadamente vulnerable. Afortunadamente, una escuela emergente de pensamiento musulmán aborda esta cuestión de una manera nueva y enfatiza que el Corán, como cualquier texto religioso, debe ser interpretado; y que esas interpretaciones pueden cambiar con el tiempo.

De hecho, el Corán defiende principios como la libertad, la imparcialidad y la rectitud, lo que indica un respeto fundamental por la justicia y la dignidad humana. El problema, como lo ha enfatizado el teólogo iraní Mohsen Kadivar, es que muchas partes de la ley sharía están vinculadas con estructuras sociales premodernas, que niegan a las mujeres y a los no musulmanes el grado de protección que reciben los hombres musulmanes.

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