Quran, sacred book of Islam

Jalur Islam menuju Pembaruan

UPPSALA – Banyak orang dalam komunitas Muslim yang sejak lama menentang Deklarasi Universal PBB tentang Hak Asasi Manusia (Universal Declaration of Human Rights). Para pengkritik menegaskan bahwa deklarasi ini dibuat oleh kekuasaan kolonial yang memiliki sejarah panjang pelanggaran HAM berat dan ini setara dengan bentuk tindakan lain yang diupayakan oleh beberapa pelaku di dunia Barat untuk memaksakan kehendaknya di negara-negara yang mayoritas penduduknya beragama Islam. Kaum Muslim konservatif dan fundamentalis bersikap lebih esktrim, mereka menyatakan bahwa tidak ada satu pun ciptaan manusia yang sama – apalagi bisa menggantikan – hukum syariah, yang sama dengan firman Allah.

Benturan antara standar-standar HAM sekuler PBB dan doktrin agama Islam mencerminkan konflik yang lebih luas antara Islam dan modernitas – konflik yang mengakibatkan banyak warga di negara-negara Muslim, termasuk perempuan dan anak-anak, menjadi sangat rentan. Untungnya, sebuah mazhab yang sedang berkembang menanggapi isu ini dengan cara baru, menekankan bahwa Al-Qur’an, seperti teks agama lainnya, harus ditafsirkan – dan penafsiran tersebut dapat berubah dari waktu ke waktu.

Faktanya adalah Al-Qur’an sesungguhnya membela prinsip-prinsip seperti kebebasan, imparsialitas, dan kebenaran, yang menunjukkan penghormatan besar terhadap keadilan dan martabat manusia. Masalahnya, sebagaimana ditekankan oleh teolog asal Iran Mohsen Kadivar, ialah sebagian besar hukum syariah terkait dengan struktur sosial pra-modern, yang tidak memberikan perlindungan yang setara kepada perempuan atau non-Muslim dibandingkan dengan laki-laki Muslim.

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