伊斯兰的欧洲梦想

马德里---与2004年马德里火车炸弹事件和2005年伦敦地铁自杀袭击如出一辙,三月份杀人狂穆罕默德·默拉在图卢兹的罪行令人毛骨悚然,同时将欧洲如何面对日益增长的穆斯林少数族群的这个两难困境,再次曝光在世人面前。没有哪个社会整合范例证明是完全没有缺陷的。但是面对如此凄凉,令人绝望的社会现象,我们真的相信会有一个“阿拉伯欧洲”出现吗?

不管是多文化特性(英国劳工部部长霍弋·金克斯曾在1966年放言:“多元化的文化生长在相互包容的环境中”),或者官方淡化宗教身份识别(正如19世纪历史学家朱莉·米歇尔所言:法国这个国家正在取代神的位置)都不能按计划进行。多元化主义在英国根深蒂固,几乎稳固了穆斯林族群的地位,伊斯兰教借此获得了一个身份标记,从而抵消了排外的力量。同样地,强制的 政教分离  政策(法国严格的共和世俗主义)似乎加剧了法国的穆斯林的宗教身份认同感。

欧洲穆斯林的惨不忍睹的高失业率(在大多数国家,他们的失业率三倍于国家平均失业率)进一步恶化了他们的社会边缘化处境,加速了他们的文化自我隔离。孤立,赤贫,身处一直对己抱有敌意的国度,法国的郊区和英国城市的贫民区变成了宗教激进派的布道场所和政治极端分子的滋生温床,那里穆斯林年轻人很容易被上述组织俘获和吸收。

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