Přichází nový Washingtonský konsenzus?

CAMBRIDGE – Je tomu dva a půl roku, co čelní představitelé Světové banky oslovili laureáta Nobelovy ceny Michaela Spence a požádali jej, aby vedl špičkově kvalifikovaný výbor pro hospodářský růst. Významnější už dotčená problematika být nemohla. „Washingtonský konsenzus“ – nechvalně proslulý seznam toho, co tvůrci politik v rozvojových zemích mají a nemají dělat – tou dobou už vyšuměl. Čím jej ale nahradit?

Spence si nebyl jistý, zda je tím správným člověkem pro tento úkol. Jeho výzkum se zaměřoval na teoretické otázky ve vyspělých ekonomikách, sám působíval jako děkan fakulty obchodu a v oblasti hospodářského rozvoje mnoho zkušeností neměl. Ten úkol ho ale zaujal. A povzbudil jej nadšený a příznivý ohlas od předpokládaných členů komise. Tak se zrodila Spencova Komise pro růst a rozvoj, hvězdami posetá skupina tvůrců politik – včetně dalšího nositele Nobelovy ceny –, jejíž závěrečná zpráva byla zveřejněna na konci května.

Spencova zpráva představuje v rozvojové politice předěl – stejnou měrou kvůli tomu, co říká, jako kvůli tomu, co neříká. Pryč jsou sebevědomá tvrzení o výhodách liberalizace, deregulace, privatizace a volných trhů. Pryč jsou šablonovitá doporučení politických přístupů nedotčená odlišnostmi vycházejícími ze souvislostí. Namísto toho si Spencova zpráva osvojuje přístup, který přiznává meze našich znalostí, zdůrazňuje pragmatismus a pozvolný postup a pobízí vlády k experimentům.

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