有一个新华盛顿共识吗?

剑桥-两年半前,世界银行高级官员来到诺贝尔奖获得者迈克尔·斯宾塞那里,请他领导一个高规格的有关经济增长的委员会。即将到来的这个问题比以前任何时候都要重要,“华盛顿共识”-有关发展中国家政策制定者可以做和不可以做的声名狼藉的清单-大部分已经不存在了,但是用什么来取代它呢?

斯宾塞不敢确定他是该工作的恰当人选。毕竟,他的研究集中在发达经济体的理论问题上;他曾经是商学院的院长;并且他在经济发展方面没有什么经验。但是该工作激起了他的兴趣, 并且他被从预期的委员会成员那里得到的热情和积极反应所鼓励。因此云集知名政策制定者的斯宾塞增长和发展委员会诞生了-该委员会包括另一位诺贝尔奖获得者-并于五月末发表了最后的报告。

斯宾塞报告代表了发展政策的一个分水岭-它涵盖的东西和遗漏的东西一样多。对自由化,放松监管,私有化和自由市场优点的自信的断言消失了。不考虑环境差别的千篇一律的政策建议也不见了。相反,斯宾塞报告采纳了承认我们的认识有局限性的方法,强调实用主义和渐进主义,并且鼓励政府进行试验。

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