La Banque mondiale, la croissance et la mondialisation

A première vue, le dernier rapport de la Banque mondiale sur la mondialisation n'est guère surprenant. Tel un mantra, il répète que les pays les plus engagés sur la voie de la mondialisation sont ceux qui bénéficient du meilleur taux de croissance et combattent le mieux la pauvreté. Mais enterré au sein du rapport, se trouve un aveu surprenant : les pays qui se sont intégrés le plus rapidement dans l'économie mondiale ne sont pas toujours ceux qui ont adopté les politiques économiques les plus libérales.

Qu'est-ce que cela signifie ? Pour la première fois, la Banque mondiale reconnaît que l'ouverture des marchés ne permet pas toujours de stimuler la croissance ni même l'intégration dans l'économie mondiale. Autrement dit, la Banque mondiale admet, de manière sous-entendue, que ses affirmations répétées quant aux bénéfices de la mondialisation sont sans conséquences directes sur ce que devrait être la politique commerciale des pays en voie de développement.

La Banque mondiale commence enfin à prendre en compte une réalité évidente pour quiconque examine la situation sans préjugé. Une intégration rapide dans l'économie mondiale est la conséquence, non de l'adhésion à l'OMC (Organisation mondiale du commerce) ou de l'ouverture des marchés au sens strict, mais d'une stratégie de croissance efficace, le plus souvent très adaptée à une situation particulière.

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